The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian. Then ruled by Humayun and then by great emporor Akbar the great. Akbar allowed free expression of religion, and attempted to resolve socio-political and cultural differences in his empire by establishing a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi. Akbar’s son, Jahangir, ruled the empire at its peak. During the reign of Jahangir’s son, Shah Jahan, the culture and splendour of the luxurious Mughal court reached its zenith as exemplified by the Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan’s eldest son, the liberal Dara Shikoh, became regent in 1658, as a result of his father’s illness. However, a younger son, Aurangzeb, allied with the Islamic orthodoxy against his brother, who championed a syncretistic Hindu-Muslim culture, and ascended to the throne. Aurangzeb defeated Dara in 1659 and had him executed. Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and had him imprisoned. After Aurangzeb’s death his son, Shah Alam, repealed the religious policies of his father, and attempted to reform the administration. However, after his death in 1712, the Mughal dynasty sank into chaos and violent feuds.
Heritage – Mughal